Quantum Combinatorial designs
We posted our recent work in arxiv --- https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.08842
Here is the abstract and I will try to explain in detail later ---
While quantum circuits built from two-particle dual-unitary (maximally entangled) operators serve as minimal models of typically nonintegrable many-body systems, the construction and characterization of dual-unitary operators themselves are only partially understood. A nonlinear map on the space of unitary operators was proposed in PRL. 125, 070501 (2020) that results in operators being arbitrarily close to dual unitaries. Here we study the map analytically for the two-qubit case describing the basins of attraction, fixed points, and rates of approach to dual unitaries. A subset of dual-unitary operators having maximum entangling power are 2-unitary operators or perfect tensors, and are equivalent to four-party absolutely maximally entangled states. It is known that they only exist if the local dimension is larger than d=2. We use the nonlinear map, and introduce stochastic variants of it, to construct explicit examples of new dual and 2-unitary operators. A necessary criterion for their local unitary equivalence to distinguish classes is also introduced and used to display various concrete results and some conjectures. It is known that orthogonal Latin squares provide a "classical combinatorial design" for constructing permutations that are 2-unitary. We extend the underlying design from classical to genuine quantum ones for general dual-unitary operators and give an example of what might be the smallest sized genuinely quantum design of a 2-unitary in d=4.